a priori. 先验的. ｘｉāｎｙàｎｄｅ a priori. 先验地. ｘｉāｎｙàｎｄì. A-, ab- (prefix). 分开. ｆēｎｋāｉ a-, an-. 不. ｂù a-, an-. 无. ｗú. Aardvark. 土豚. ｔǔｔúｎ. Aardvark. 土猪. ｔǔｚｈū. Examinations Board. COMMON ENTRANCE EXAMINATION at 11+ and 13+. MANDARIN CHINESE. VOCABULARY AND CHINESE CHARACTERS. FOR USE. PDF | This paper aims to shed some light on the use of Speaking Contest as the learning of Mandarin among non-native Chinese learners. .. Penggunaan kamus bahasa Melayu ke bahasa Cina dalam penambahan kosa kata bahasa cina.
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NOTE: if you experience download errors, see suiniconlesssin.ml for other download options. Pleco is the ultimate Chinese learning companion - an integrated. required vocabulary words and phrases. You can also download the pdf version. 汉语, hànyǔ, mandarin Chinese. 字, zì, character. related grammar patterns. Download the HSK level 3 words list PDF. grammar patterns. Download PDF . 葡萄, pútao, Grape. 普通话, pǔtōnghuà, Mandarin.
Instructors may allow representatives for Mandarin speaking contest to practise in front of the class. After the practice, instructors may subsequently use the texts prepared for Mandarin speaking contest as supplementary learning materials to explain lexical cohesion to the class.
This helps to enhance Mandarin learning. In sum, instructors are called to use speaking contest to boost up the learning motivation in the language learning classroom. As Mandarin speaking contest does have the element of strengthening speaking skill, it could be utilized in a good way in the teaching of Mandarin as a foreign language. The research procedure was summarised in Table 1.
Table 1: Research procedure Stage Research procedure 1 Students and instructors prepared themselves for the Mandarin speaking contest 2 Mandarin speaking contest was held 3 All participants were given a self developed questionnaire see appendix 1, derived from Dang, a b to gather their perceptions on the use of Mandarin speaking contest activity for Mandarin learning.
All the participants in this Mandarin speaking contest were the respondents in this study. They have been taught Mandarin both at primary, secondary and post secondary school levels. Another 20 students audience were used as samples for comparison. The samples of this study were shown in Table 2. Table 2: Research samples Group Number of samples 1 Participants 15 2 Non-participants — audience students 20 Total 35 There were altogether 15 participating students in this competition coming from various campuses.
All the participants and 20 students audience filled up the questionnaires.
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The data was analyzed utilizing the SPSS software in order to obtain information on the descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings were shown in the next section. There were two hypotheses made for this study.
They were shown in Table 3.
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Table 3: A scale of 5 was used in which 1 indicated strongly disagreed and 5 indicated strongly agreed. The perceptions of the students according to the two groups participants and non-participants of the contest were shown in Table 4. Table 4: It showed that the students were affirmative that Mandarin speaking contest activity aided their Mandarin learning testing hypothesis 1, H1 was accepted.
However, there seemed to be differences in perceptions between the participating and non-participating groups.
The mean for the participating group 4. T test was used to validate its significance. The result is shown in Table 5. Table 5: T test — comparing perceptions of students between participating and non- participating groups Groups comparison t value Participating group with non-participating group 2. It showed that the participating students were differing and more positive about the perceptions on the usefulness of Mandarin speaking contest activity to support their Mandarin learning testing hypothesis 2, H2 was rejected.
It implies that instructors are encouraged to utilise language activities such as speaking contest activity to engage students in the learning of Chinese as a foreign language.
There was a significant difference between the participating and non-participating group on the use of Mandarin speaking contest activity for Mandarin learning. Participating students were significantly more positive compared to non-participating students. This indicates that direct involvement may have affected the use of language activities such as speaking contest activity to support their Mandarin learning.
If not, the efforts in engaging students in all kinds of language activities will be in vain without any substantial benefits and only benefit the participating students only. Hence, in helping students to participate in the speaking contest activity, active involvement of students is vital.
Students must not be made to passively memorize their speaking scripts without any form of active learning activities. Students with hands on experience in understanding their speaking texts giving them different kinds of active learning knowledge and thus enhance their Mandarin learning.
Instructors may then discuss the scripts together with their students in making sure that supplementary learning occurs. The speaking contest activities should not just benefit students with prior Mandarin language knowledge in either Chinese primary or secondary school level.
Encouragement has to be given to non-native learners with no knowledge of Mandarin to start speaking in Mandarin. Typically, instructors would prefer to select students with some Mandarin learning background. Priorities are given to students with Mandarin background as representatives in Mandarin speaking contest.
Students with non-Mandarin background have to be involved more to make Mandarin speaking contest activity meaningful. Therefore, it is suggested that special prizes should be given to students with no knowledge of Mandarin in the aspect of Mandarin pronunciation performance. This would give Mandarin leaners the confidence to start in participating in Mandarin speaking contest and at the same time, make this activity more meaningful. In addition, impromptu public speaking method can be engaged Zhu, This method can be used for students with knowledge of Mandarin.
Hence, it is suggested that there can be two categories in the Mandarin speaking contest.
The first category is impromptu public speaking contest for students with Mandarin background while second category which is prepared structured speaking contest for students with non-Mandarin background.
This would make speaking contest activity more meaningful for these two categories of students. There could be issues pertaining to the scripts used for speaking contest.
One of the issues pertains to the cultural aspects in the scripts Qiao, As non-native learners, the participants might not be able to appreciate cultural-bound contests. Hence, instructors have to address this. Another related issue pertaining to the scripts for speaking contest is the discourse function of the scripts Wu, In ensuring the usefulness of the support of speaking contest on the learning of Mandarin, instructors have to make certain that the sentences used in the speaking contests are associated with daily discourse function.
In relation to this, the lexical aspect of the public speaking has to be given attention Li, The vocabulary used in speaking contest tends to be more academic. The suitability of the vocabulary used in the speaking contest activity for daily conversation is questionable. Hence, the organizers have to decide on the appropriate themes for the speaking contest that relates to daily conversation in order to achieve practical support for Mandarin learning.
By attending to these two aspects, the participants may then gain positive reinforcement in applying the scripts memorized for daily conversational purpose.
There are other aspects of speaking contest which is not covered in this study. One aspect is to compare students with background in Mandarin and without any background in Mandarin language, on their views on the use of speaking contest as a Mandarin learning support and reduce anxiety of public speaking Zhang, that allows the use of speaking contest as an activity to support Mandarin learning among non-native Mandarin learners.
This opens door for further studies in this area.
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The use of Mandarin speaking contest as an activity to support Mandarin learning is definitely beneficial. This contest is encouraged to be used in the teaching of Mandarin as a foreign language.
Exploring the use of multiple intelligences for English language teaching. Dengan demikian, radikal standar yang diperkenalkan di Zihui biasanya dikenal sebagai radikal Kangxi.
Misalnya, kamus modern di RRC biasanya menggunakan transkripsi Pinyin dari sebuah karakter untuk melakukan pencarian karakter.
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Mengikuti metode "section-header-and-stroke-count" ciptaan Mei Yingzuo , karakter-karakter didaftar berdasarkan radikal mereka dan kemudian diurutkan berdasarkan jumlah goresan yang diperlukan untuk menulisnya. Langkah-langkah dalam mencari karakter adalah: Identifikasi radikal di mana karakter paling mungkin telah diindeks.
Jika seseorang tidak tahu, maka komponen di sisi kiri atau atas merupakan tebakan pertama yang baik. Cari bagian kamus yang berhubungan dengan radikal itu. Hitung jumlah goresan di bagian karakter yang tersisa.
Temukan halaman yang mencantumkan karakter di bawah radikal yang memiliki jumlah goresan tambahan itu.
Temukan entri atau percobaan yang sesuai dengan pilihan berbeda untuk langkah 1 dan 3. Untuk mencari karakter ini di kamus, langkah pertama adalah denganmencari radikal "manusia" pada indeks.Duan, Y.
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The concept of classroom action research in this research using Kurt Lewin methods is in a cycle consisting of four steps: 1 planning, 2 action or acting, 3 observing, and 4 reflection Lewin, Top Charts. The latter is very important. Karena sebagian besar aksara merupakan gabungan fono-semantik , yang menggabungkan komponen semantik dengan komponen fonetik, masing-masing komponen semantik cenderung muncul berulang dalam bagian tertentu dari kamus.
This method can be used for students with knowledge of Mandarin. In fact, the productions that are intended for all ethnic groups, like some pop music programmes, tend to be in English.
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